Fundamentals of Nanotechnology, 2009

Pass/fall exam: 5 p.m., 22 May, 2009 (those third-year students who pass the exam undertake further study majoring in Nanosystems and Nanodevices, Functional Nanomaterials, Nanobiomaterials and Nanobiotechnology).

The lectures are delivered on Tuesdays and Fridays, 5 p.m., 01 lecture hall, the Main Building of MSU. The course is open to the general public. If you are not an MSU student, postgraduate student or employee, please enroll in advance.


Lecture 1

10 February 2009

Basic notions and definitions of nanosystems and nanotechnology. History of nanotechnology and nanosystems. Interdisciplinarity and multidisciplinarity. Examples of nano-objects and nanosystems, their peculiarities and technological applications. Objects and methods of nanotechnology. Principles and development prospects of nanotechnology.
(Prof. Yu. Tretyakov, Full member of RAS)

Lecture 2

13 February 2009

Peculiarities of nanoscale physical interactions. Role of volume and surface in physical properties of nano-sized objects. Mechanics of nano-objects. Mechanical oscillations and resonances in nano-sized systems. Force of friction. Coulomb interaction. Optics of nano-objects. Relation of wavelength of light and size of nanoparticles. Difference in light emission in homogeneous and nanostructured matters. Magnetism of nano-objects.
(Prof. A. Obraztsov)

Lecture 3

17 February 2009

Quantum mechanics of nanosystems. Quantum-scale effects in nano-objects. Quasi-particles in solids and nanostructured materials. Quantum dots. Crystal whiskers, fibers, nanotubes, thin films, heterostructures. Quantum effects in nanostructures in magnetic field. Electrical conductivity of nano-objects. Ballistic conductivity. Single-electron tunneling and Coulomb blockade. Optical properties of quantum dots. Spintronics of nano-objects.
(Prof. V. Timoshenko)

Lecture 4

20 February 2009

Basic principles of formation of nanosystems. Physical and chemical methods. Top-down fabrication of nano-objects. Nanoindentation and lithography – classical, soft, microsphere, FIB, AFM. Mechanical activation and mechanical synthesis of nano-objects. Down-top fabrication of nano-objects. Nucleation in gases and condensed matters. Heterogeneous nucleation, epitaxy and heteroepitaxy. Spinodal decomposition. Synthesis of nano-objects in amorphous (glass) matrices. Chemical homogenization (coprecipitation, sol-gel method, cryochemical technology, aerosol spray pyrolysis, solvothermal technique, supercritical drying.) Classification of nanoparticles and nano-objects. Fabrication and stabilization of nanoparticles. Aggregation and disaggregation of nanoparticles. Synthesis of nanomaterials in one- and two-dimensional nanoreactors.
(Prof. E. Gudilin, RAS corresponding member)

Lecture 5

24 February 2009

Statistical physics of nanosystems. Peculiarities of phase transitions in small systems. Types of intra- and intermolecular interactions. Hydrophobic nature and hydrophilic nature. Self-assembly and self-organization. Micelle formation. Self-assembled monolayers. Langmuir-Blodgett films. Supramolecular organization of molecules. Molecular recognition. Polymer macromolecules and their fabrication techniques. Self-organization in polymer systems. Microphase separation of block copolymers. Dendrimers, polymer brushes. Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte self-assembly. Supramolecular polymers.
(Prof. A. Khokhlov, Full member of RAS)

Lecture 6

10 March 2009

Computer modeling of nanostructures and nanosystems. Microscopic and mesoscopic modeling methods (Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, field theory methods, finite element methods and peridynamics). Relation of different spatial and temporal scales. Molecular engineering. Computer visualization of nano-objects. Numerical experiment and its potential. Examples of molecular modeling of nanostructures, molecular switches, proteins, biomembranes, ion channels, molecular machines.
(Prof. P. Khalatur)

Lecture 7

03 March 2009

Nano-objects and nanosystems: research methods and diagnostics. Raster electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electron tomography. Electron spectroscopy. Diffraction research methods. Optical and nonlinear optical diagnostic methods. Peculiarities of confocal microscopy. Scanning probe microscopy. Force microscopy. Spectroscopy of atomic force interactions. Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Optical microscopy and near-field polarimetry. Application of scanning probe microscopy in nanotechnology.
(Prof. V. Panov)

Lecture 8

13 March 2009

Substance, phase, material. Hierarchic material structure. Nanomaterials and their classification. Inorganic and organic functional nanomaterials. Hybrid materials (organic-inorganic and inorganic-organic.) Biomineralization and bioceramics. 1D, 2D, 3D nanostructured materials. Mesoporous materials. Molecular sieves. Nanocomposites and their synergetic properties. Construction nanomaterials.
(Prof. E. Gudilin, RAS corresponding member)

Lecture 9

24 March 2009

Capillarity and wetting in nanosystems. Surface energy and surface tension. Drops on solid and fluid surfaces. Complete and incomplete wetting. Surface (electrostatic and molecular) and capillary forces. Hysteresis of wetting angle: role of chemical inhomogeneity and roughness. Superhydrophobic surfaces. Fractal and ordered textures. Elastic capillarity. Dynamics of wetting and spreading. Problems of flow, mixing and separation in small channels and devices for micro- and nanofluidics. Digital microfluidics, electrokinetics, anisotropic and superhydrophobic textures as examples how to solve problems of micro- and nanofluidics. Applications: self-cleaning and water resistance, lab-on-a-chip, DNA chips, biomedicine, fuel elements.
(Prof. O. Vinogradova)

Lecture 10

27 March 2009

Catalysis and nanotechnology. Basic principles and concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Effect of conditions of preparation and activation on active surface formation of heterogeneous catalysts. Structure-sensitive and structure-insensitive reactions. Particular characteristics of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of nanoparticles. Electrocalysis. Zeolite and molecular sieves catalysis. Membrane catalysis.
(Prof. V. Lunin, Full member of RAS)

Lecture 11

31 March 2009

Physics of nanodevices. Techniques for fabricating nanodevices. Mechanical and electromechanical micro- and nanodevices. Sensing elements of micro- and nanosystem equipment. Thermocouple-based temperature sensors. Angular velocity sensors. Magnetic field sensors. Micro- and nanopumps. Integrated micromirrors. Integrated micromechanical switches. Integrated micro- and nanomotors. Physical principles of operation of main elements of micro- and nanoelectronics. Moore’s law. Single-electron devices. Single-electron transistor. Single-electron elements of digital circuits.
(Prof. A. Obraztsov)

Lecture 12

03 April 2009

Physics of nanodevices. Optoelectronic and nanoelectronic devices. Double-heterostructure ligth emitting diodes and lasers. Quantum well photodetector. Multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes. Nanophotonic devices and equipment. Photonic crystals. Artificial opals. Fiber optics. Optical switches and filters. Prospects for development of photonic integrated circuits, data storage and processing devices. Magnetic data storage nanodevices. Semiconductor, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, photoacoustic, surface acoustic wave nanosensors.
(Prof. V. Timoshenko)

Lecture 13

10 April 2009

Molecular basis of living systems. Concept of living cell; composition and functions of organelles, principle of self-organization of living systems. Application of thermodynamic and kinetic principles to living matter. Bacteria, eukaryotes, multicellular organisms. Nucleic acids: classification, composition, properties. Natural nanosystems in storage, retrieval and realization of cell’s genetic information. Control systems of cell division at organism’s level. Cancer as cell’s genetic program failure.
(Prof. O. Dontsova, RAS corresponding member)

Lecture 14

14 April 2009

Structure and functions of proteins. Functions of proteins, variety of amino acids of proteins. Levels of protein structure, research methods of different levels of protein molecule structure. Primary structure of protein, posttranslational modifications. Secondary and tertiary structures of protein, protein folding problems, diseases caused by protein misfolding. Synthesis of artificial protein with improved structure as an important nanotechnological problem. Quaternary protein structure and its usage to broaden regulation options and perform a mechanical function. Connective tissue proteins (collagen), regulatory mechanisms of mechanical strength. Cytoskeletal proteins (actin, tubulin, proteins of intermediate filaments), regulation of assembly and disassembly of cytoskeletal elements. Usage of cytoskeletal proteins as tracks for motor proteins. Myosins, kinesins, dyneins as examples of highly specialized nanomotor proteins that ensure intracellular transport and biological motility. Applicability potential of motor proteins to solve some nanotechnological problems.
(Prof. N. Gusev)

Lecture 15

21 April 2009

Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides. Peculiarities of their structure, display modes. Applicability potential of polysaccharides as nanobiomaterials. Lipids. Their classification and peculiarities of their structure. Nanostructures formed by lipids. Monolayers, micelles, liposomes. Their applicability potential for nanotechnology. Biomembranes. Peculiarities of their structure and main functions.
(Prof. A. Gladilin)

Lecture 16

28 April 2009

Enzymes as proteins with a special catalytic function. Basic principles of enzyme structure and peculiarities of enzyme catalysis. Zymophore: self-organizing and highly organized functionalized nanoparticle and nanomachine. Vitamins and coenzymes, their participation in catalysis. Molecular design and alteration of enzyme specificity as nanotechnological problems and perspectives. Nanoscale size effects in protein catalysis. Enzymes in membranes and membrane-like nanostructures: regulation of catalytic properties and oligomeric composition by matrix size. Biomolecular nanoparticles; enzyme in shell of inorganic and organic molecules as new stable catalyst. Multienzyme complexes: application of recognition principle in nature and nanosized matrices.
(Prof. N. Klyachko)

Lecture 17

05 May 2009

Structural and functional aspects of bionanotechnology. Variety of supramolecular structures formed by biomolecules. Self-assembly principle. Usage of biostructures with unique geometry as templates to fabricate nanomaterials and nanostructures (fabrication of nanowires, nanotubes, nanorods from metals, conducting polymers, semiconductors, oxides and magnetic materials using DNA, viral particles and protein filaments). Fabrication of 2D nanopatterns and 3D superstructures using DNA, S-layers, viral particles and liposomes. Artificial self-organization methods on nanoscale. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials. General methods of conjugation of nano-objects with biomolecules. Specific affinity of some biomolecules and nano-objects.
(Prof. I. Kurochkin)

Lecture 18

12 May 2009

Nanobioanalytical systems. History of development of modern bioanalytical systems. Biosensors. Basic notions and application. Biosensor recognition elements: enzymes, nucleic acids, antibodies and receptors, cell organelles, cells, organs and tissues. Biosensor detection elements. Physics of signal recording. Types of biosensors: electrochemical, semiconducting, microgravimetric, fiber-optic, surface plasmons, diffraction lattices, interferometric, micro- and nanomechanical. Nanobioanalytical systems based on nanosized semiconductor and metal structures (quantum dots, molecular springs, surface enhanced Raman scattering, methods of enzyme metallography and autometallography, etc.) Application in environmental monitoring and biomedical research. Nanobioanalytical systems based on scanning probe microscopy.
(Prof. I. Kurochkin)

Current Issues in Nanotechnology.

Nanomaterials in Power Industry. Prof. E. Antipov

08 May 2009

The lecture deals with the current state and issues of fabrication of new materials for chemical sources of electrical energy: solid oxide fuel cells and lithium rechargeable batteries. It analyzes key and structure factors which affect properties of various inorganic compounds and determine their potential application as electrode materials: complex perovskites in solid oxide fuel cells and transition metal compounds (complex oxides and phosphates) in lithium rechargeable batteries. It considers main anode and cathode materials used in lithium rechargeable batteries and recognized as perspective ones: their advantages and restrictions; possible ways of overcoming the restrictions by directed change in atomic structure and microstructure of composite materials through nanopatterning in order to improve characteristics of sources of electrical energy.

Use of viral structures as nanotechnology instruments. J. Atabekov, Full member of RAS and RAAS

15 May 2009

The lecture discusses principles of molecular structure of viral nanoparticles. It considers nanotechnology related to the use of viral nanoparticles for fabrication of novel bioinorganic materials such as nanotubes, nanoconductors, nanoelectrodes, nanocontainers; for encapsidation of inorganic compounds, magnetic nanoparticles and inorganic nanocrystals with controlled size. The novel materials are fabricated through the interaction of regularly organized viral protein structures with metal-containing inorganic compounds. Viruses can be also used as nanocontainers for storage and targeted delivery of drugs and therapeutic genes to cells. The lecture also examines the potential of direct application of surface-modified viral nanosubstructures as nanoinstruments (e.g., in biocatalysis and for the synthesis of live and intrinsically safe vaccines.)

Molecular biology and nanotechnology. A. Bogdanov, Full member of RAS

07 April 2009

Biopolymers are proteins and nucleic acids structure and functions of which are objects of biology studies have the unique ability to self-assemble into complex specific associates such as polyenzyme and DNA-protein complexes, ribosomes and viruses. One of the strategic approach to the design of nanomaterials and nanodevices includes principles of self-assembly and molecular recognition of biological macromolecules. The lecture also considers the first examples of successful application of nanostructures obtained on the basis of self-assembling biological structures in nanobiotechnology and medicine.

Biocatalysis and nanotechnology. S. Varfolomeev, Corresponding member of RAS

17 March 2009

Nanotechnology opens up new opportunities for application of biocatalysts. Quantum chemistry in research into elementary acts of protein catalysis. Biocatalysts can work in boiling water; nature of thermal stability of thermophilic microorganisms and the use of natural principles in nanobiotechnology. Magnetic nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles; ferromagnetic proteins and enzymes. Bioelectrocatalysis as a phenomenon of acceleration of electrode processes and their application in the development of nanobiosensors. Biocatalysis in power industry: biofuel elements. Bioelectrocatalysis: direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity. Biocatalysis and ecology: breakdown of superecotoxicants. Development of method of registration of antigen-antibody interactions using enzyme synthesis of polymer nanostructures. Research into possible registration of reaction products on nanoscale (using AFM.)

Nanobiosecurity. M. Kirpichnikov, Full member of RAS

24 April 2009

Physical and chemical basis of potential risks in the fabrication and application of nanomaterials. Examples of toxic effect of nanomaterial. Social and ethical issues of nanobiosecurity.

Carbon nanomaterials and nanostructures in laser technology. Prof. V. Konov, Corresponding member of RAS

19 May 2009

Various carbon materials (nano-, poly-, monocrystalline diamond, diamond-like amorphous carbon films) demonstrate that laser technology can be used for their synthesis and fabrication of nanostructures on the surface and in the volume of irradiated samples. Carbon nanomaterials can also be used as optical components of laser systems, for example, single-wall carbon nanotubes and materials based on them as new and high performance nonlinear optical components that make it possible to generate ultrashort laser pulses necessary to perform tasks of laser nanotechnology and many others.

How do energy molecular machines work in biology? A. Rubin, Corresponding member of RAS

20 March 2009

General biophysical mechanisms of energy transformation in biological nanoscale structures (molecular machines.) Electron transfer mechanism, tunnel transfer, electronic-conformational interactions in active protein complexes, hierarchy of conformational changes in proteins (10-12–10-3s.) Transmembrane potential formation. ATP as the universal energy currency in living systems. Work of molecular motors: ATP synthetase, photosynthetic reaction centers, retinal containing photosensitive proteins (rhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin.)

Mitotechnology. V. Skulachev, Full member of RAS

06 March 2009

Nanotechnology opens up a few new opportunities to influence living systems, for example, targeted delivery of bioactive substances to cells. Mitotechnology makes it possible to deliver necessary substances to cells with an accuracy of a few nanometers, i.e. to inner membrane of mitochondria. The method enables the development of drugs based on lipophilic cations. Such development and research into physical and chemical properties and bioactivity of these drugs have some unique traits.

Nanotechnology in medicine. V. Tkachuk, Full member of RAS and RAMS

27 February 2009

Application areas of nanotechnology for development of radically new diagnostic methods and treatment of human diseases: using of nanomaterials for targeted delivery of drugs and therapeutic genes, visualization of pathomorphological structures, breaking biocompatibility barriers, design of medical nanorobots, etc.

Smart polymers. A. Khokhlov, Full member of RAS

17 April 2009

Polymers for construction materials and functional systems. Smart polymer systems able to perform complex functions. Examples of smart systems (polymeric liquids in oil production, smart windows, nanoconstructed membranes of fuel cells.) Biopolymers as the smartest systems. Biomimetic approach. Design of sequences to optimize properties of smart polymers. Molecular evolution of sequences in biopolymers.